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29 March 2015

Playing Traditional Jazz: When Your Grand-Daughter Sketches Your Cornet!

My grand-daughter Marianne, aged just 17, made this pencil sketch featuring my Courtois Cornet.

Of course, I'm a very proud Granddad and hope Marianne will one day secure a job in which she will be able to use her considerable artistic talents.

28 March 2015

Traditional Jazz: 'Blue Chime Stomp'

Tuba Skinny (and more specifically - I guess - Shaye Cohn) have done it again: they have come up with a new tune and given it a brilliant performance from which we can all learn something.

I am referring to Blue Chime Stomp which - thanks to the generous video-maker codenamed RaoulDuke504 - became the newest tune in their YouTube repertoire on 24 March 2015. Have a listen by clicking here.

Great stuff, isn't it?

Underlying all the excitement and brilliance, the tune comprises just two 16-bar themes, both played in the key of Bb. Let's call them A and B.

The A Theme includes the 'Chimes' - descending in semitones over bars 1 - 4  and 9 - 12.

The B Theme is sprightly and melodious. Using a familiar chord progression (you find it in Do What Ory Say and Dallas Rag and Sister Kate and South, it lends itself easily to improvisations.

The band plays the themes in this order:

As usual, Tuba Skinny add sparkle, brilliance and excitement to the basic material. This includes playing the 'chimes' in different ways - such as hitting the second beat of the bar rather than the first, and breaking the chime chord into an arpeggio played by the trombone, cornet and clarinet.

And when they play Theme B for the third, fourth and fifth times, they build up the excitement like this:
5th time: Clarinet alone leads;
6th time: Clarinet gets support from the trombone;
7th time : Cornet joins in, for a thrilling energetic polyphonic chorus.

There are no tedious 'solo' choruses. Except as mentioned above, the full ensemble keeps busy throughout.

27 March 2015

Recommended 'I Charleston' Videos: Traditional Jazz

Just in case you are one of those people who have not come across the life-affirming, heart-warming 'I Charleston' videos, I must tell you that you have missed a treat. Do something about it and take a look at them.

What happens is that a group of enthusiasts (mostly young) make a video in which they energetically dance the Charleston in settings that highlight the sights and architecture and tourist attractions of their city.

It is great fun and mildly competitive. You can decide for yourself which city has made the best video. For traditional jazz fans, there's the added attraction that many of the videos use good recordings of our bands as the accompaniment to the dancers.

There are plenty of these videos on YouTube. You might care to start with New York City: CLICK HERE;
or London: CLICK HERE;
or with one of the less-known cities. I particularly enjoyed this one from Brest, France: CLICK HERE.

Parma has plenty of creative ideas: CLICK HERE. And Warsaw has even used music by our beloved Tuba Skinny to provide the accompaniment: CLICK HERE!

26 March 2015

Traditional Jazz: Middle Eight? How about a Middle Ten or Middle Four?

Playing traditional jazz, you quickly become accustomed to the pattern of 32 bars in which there are four 'eight's. It occurs in hundreds of the good old songs. We label these four groups of eight bars

a   -  a   -   b   -  c

with 'a' being more or less the same musical phrase each time, while 'b' uses a different, contrasting melody and a different chord progression. The 'b' section is called 'the middle eight' or sometimes 'the release' or 'the bridge'. Think of Ice Cream or One Sweet Letter from You as examples.

This 32-bar routine comes very naturally to musicians and audiences because it fits in with our instinctive toe-tapping or hand-clapping patterns and also because the triple appearance of the 'a' section reinforces our perception of the melody and makes it easy to pick up.

But just occasionally you come across a tune that FEELS like a 32-bar  a  -  a  -  b  -  a   structure but in fact throws in a surprise. I recently noticed a couple.

These Foolish Things fits the pattern except that the Middle Eight is actually a MIDDLE FOUR. (I am referring to the sheet music version. I note that jazz groups sometimes make the four bars into eight by playing all the notes at double the written length.) So the tune (in its correct form, at least) ends up with 28 bars instead of 32. Try it and you will see what I mean.

What Am I Living For? (made famous by the Kid Thomas Band) clearly has a Middle Four - not a Middle Eight.

Even more surprising is Top Hat, White Tie and Tails, where the Middle Eight becomes a Middle TEN! How does this happen? Well, at the end of the first four bars of the 'Middle Eight', the long note in the fourth bar is extended for another full bar. Then this happens again after four more bars. It sounds weird? But watch Fred Astaire dancing and singing (on You Tube) and you will see for yourself that this is exactly what happens. It's as if the extra two bars (which have the effect almost of pauses) give a chance for the performer to catch a breath.

Repertoire of Tuba Skinny: Traditional Jazz

[Last updated, 26 March 2015]

Tuba Skinny, as far as I know, is the best traditional jazz band playing anywhere in the world today. And the great thing about it is that its members are YOUNG!

Although the band has been in existence for only six years, it has built up an extraordinary repertoire so different from that of hundreds of other trad bands who go on playing the same old Bill Bailey, All of Me and Muskrat Ramble month in, month out.

Tuba Skinny's programmes mostly comprise exciting unfamiliar gems they have unearthed from the 1920s and 1930s (e.g. New Orleans BumpYou Can Have My Husband, Cold Morning Shout, Forget Me Not Blues, Jackson Stomp, The Cotton Pickers' RagDeep HendersonBanjorenoTreasures UntoldRussian RagOriental StrutMinor DragMichigander BluesIn Harlem's ArabyMe and My ChauffeurA Jazz BattleDroppin' ShucksFourth Street Mess AroundCarpet Alley Breakdown). The almost-forgotten artists whose music they have revived include Lucille Bogan, Bo Carter, Big Bill Broonzy, Sara Martin, Victoria Spivey, Memphis Minnie, Jabbo Smith, Skip James, Merline Johnson, Blind Boy Fuller, Hattie Hart, The Memphis Jug Band, The Tennessee Chocolate Drops, Clara Smith, The Dixieland Jug Blowers, The South Street Trio and The Mississippi Mud Steppers; and of course they also play tunes associated with the better-known, such as Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, Fats Waller, Louis Armstrong and Jelly Roll Morton. And they will surprise you by going to some unconventional sources for tunes they turn into exciting traditional jazz - sources such as Ray Charles and the 21st-century Australian original C. W. Stoneking.

Also in their use of structures, rhythmic variations, key changes, introductions, codas and the sharing and backing of 'solo' choruses or half-choruses, Tuba Skinny have much to teach the rest of us.

Tuba Skinny must have spent a great deal of time researching tunes from the 1920s and 1930s that risked falling into obscurity. Their own Twenty-First Century versions manage both to show respect for the originals and yet at the same time present the tunes in a fresh and exciting manner.

Thanks to the immense generosity of this band and of those who make videos of their performances,   it is possible (particularly on YouTube) for the whole world to see and hear them.

With considerable effort, I struggle to maintain a list of the tunes played by Tuba Skinny that constantly appear on YouTube. Sometimes I have difficulty in identifying them or find it impossible. 

However, I have done my best and the following list contains well over 200 of the tunes you can already hear Tuba Skinny playing, via the Internet, mainly on YouTube. I have obviously had to omit a few whose titles I don't know. (They have also made six CDs. Not bad for six years!)

I think you will agree that to have mastered such a repertoire in such a short time is a remarkable achievement. And you will notice how many of these wonderful tunes are missing from the repertoire of most trad bands.
After You’ve Gone (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (Creamer and Layton, 1927)
Ain’t Gonna Give Nobody None of My Jelly Roll (on their CD Six Feet Down)
Alligator Crawl (on their CD Pyramid Strut(Fats Waller 1927)
All I Want is a Spoonful (Papa Charlie Jackson 8-bar theme from 1925)
Almost Afraid to Love (composed by Ann Turner for Georgia White 1938)
Ambulance Man (on their CD Owl Call Blues(Hattie Hart, 1930)
Any Kinda Man (would be better than you) (on their CD Garbage Man) (Recorded by Victoria Spivey, 1936)
At The Jazz Band Ball (on their CD Six Feet Down)
Avalon (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (Da Sylva, Vincent Rose and Al Jolson, 1920)
Baby, How Can It Be?(on their CD Rag Band) (Armenter Bo Chatmon [stage name Bo Carter] recorded it in 1931)
Ballin' The Jack (J. Burris and Chris Smith & possibly James Reese Europe, 1923)
Banjoreno (on their CD Rag Band) (H. Clifford, 1926, for the Dixieland Jug Blowers)
Big Chief Battleaxe (on their CD Pyramid Strut)  (Composed by T. Allen in 1907)
Bill Bailey (Hughie Cannon, 1909)
Billie’s Blues (on their CD Tuba Skinny)
Billy Goat Stomp (Jelly Roll Morton, 1927)
Biscuit Roller (on their CD Rag Band) (1937, Richard M. Jones and Georgia White)
Black Mountain Blues
Blood Thirsty Blues (on their CD Pyramid Strut) (Written and recorded by Victoria Spivey, 1927)
Blue Chime Stomp (?Shaye Cohn, 2015)
Blue Devil Blues (possibly Sara Martin and her Jug Band 1925)
Blue Moon of Kentucky Keep on Shining
Blues My Naughty Sweetie Gives to Me (Arthur Swanstone, Chas McCarron & Carey Morgan, 1919)
Broken-Hearted Blues (composed by Erika Lewis, 2009; on their CD Tuba Skinny)
Broken-Hearted Blues (a second tune with this name - the one written and recorded by Lil Johnson in 1937 -  is on their CD Garbage Man)
Bumblebee (recorded by Memphis Minnie in 1930)
Cannon Ball Blues (on their CD Owl Call Blues(watch this by clicking here  to see how brilliantly they tackle even a 12-bar blues - with three key changes in two and a half minutes)
Careless Love (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (W. C. Handy)
Carpet Alley Breakdown (Cal Smith and Henry Clifford. Recorded by Johnny Dodds, 1926)
C.C. (See See) Rider  (Gertrude 'Ma' Rainey, 1925)
Cemetery Blues (Sid Laney, 1923. Recorded by Bessie Smith)
Chloe (on their CD Tuba Skinny)
Climax Rag (on their CD Rag Band) (James Scott, 1914)
Cold Mornin' Shout (on their CD Pyramid Strut) (Bobby Leecan for The South Street Trio, 1926)
Cotton Pickers' Rag (Ben Tinnon, 1930, for the Grinnell Giggers)
Coquette (Guy Lombardo tune from 1928)
Crazy Blues (written by Perry Bradford, 1927)
Crazy 'Bout You (on their CD Owl Call Blues(Big Bill Broonzy and the State Street Boys, 1935)
Crow Jane (on their CD Rag Band) (Skip James, 1931)
Crumpled Paper (12-bar in a minor key, played previously by Loose Marbles in the TV series 'Treme')
Dallas Blues (Hart A. Wand, 1912; words added by Lloyd Garrett, 1918)
Dallas Rag (on their CD Owl Call Blues; Dallas String Band, 1927)
Dangerous Blues (ODJB 1921)
Dear Almanzoer (Oscar 'Papa' Celestin, 1927)
Deep Henderson (on their CD Pyramid Strut(Fred Rose, 1926)
Delta Bound (on their CD Rag Band)
Dirty TB Blues (Composed and recorded by Victoria Spivey, 1929)
Don't You Feel My Leg (Danny Barker, Blu Lu Barker and J. Mayo Williams, 1938)
Dodo Blues (C. W. Stoneking, 2006)
Do It Right (Jones, 1929)
Do Your Duty (on their CD Six Feet Down(Wesley Wilson for Bessie Smith, 1933)
Dreaming The Hours Away (Will E. Dulmage, 1927. Recorded 1928 by Clarence Williams' Jazz Kings)
Droppin’ Shucks (Lil Hardin, 1926)
Dusty Rag (composed by May Aufderheide of Indianapolis in 1908!)
Dyin’ Blues
Eagle Riding Papa (Big Bill Broonzy, 1930)
Egyptian Ella (composed by Walter Doyle in 1931)
Everybody Loves My Baby (1922; by Jack Palmer and Spencer Williams)
Exactly Like You (Dorothy Fields and Jimmy McHugh, 1930)
Faraway Blues (composed by Fletcher Henderson in 1920)
Farewell to Storyville (Spencer Williams, 1924. But he called it 'Good Time Flat Blues')
Fingering With Your Fingers (Created by The Mississippi Sheiks in 1935)
Forget Me Not Blues (recorded - and perhaps composed - by Sara Martin in 1925)
Fourth Street Mess Around (composed by Will Shade for The Memphis Jug Band, 1930)
Freight Train Blues (on their CD Pyramid Strut; Recorded 1924 by Clara Smith. Composers: Thomas A Dorsey & Everett Murphy)
Frisco Bound (a 10-bar blues! Composed by Memphis Minnie and Kansas Joe in 1929)
Frosty Morning Blues (on their CD Garbage Man) (Composed by Eddie Brown; recorded 1924 by Bessie Smith)
Garbage Man (on their CD Garbage Man)
Gee Baby Ain't I Good to You (composed by Razaf and Redman in 1929)
Going to Germany (Noah Lewis for Cannon's Jug Stompers, 1929)
Good Liquor Gonna Carry Me Down (Written and recorded by Big Bill Broonzy, 1935)
Good Time Flat Blues (Also known as Farewell to Storyville. By Spencer Williams, 1924)
Got a Mind to Ramble (on their CD Owl Call Blues; recorded by Merline Johnson in the 1930s)
(You) Gotta Give Me Some (on their CD Tuba Skinny; and on their CD Pyramid Strut) (Composed by Clarence Williams. Recorded by Margaret Webster 1929; and also by Bessie Smith) 
Grandpa's Spells (Jelly Roll Morton, 1923. See great video at  http://vimeo.com/101422951 )
Hard Pushin' Papa
He Likes It Slow (on their CD Six Feet Down) (W. Benton Overstreet for Butterbeans and Susie, 1926)
Hear Me Talkin’ To Ya (recorded by Ma Rainey)
Hesitatin’ Blues (on their CD Pyramid Strut)
Hey Hey, Your Mama's Feeling Blue (Blind Blake's Blues - 16-bar song)
High Society (By Porter, Steele and Melrose, 1901)
Honey (32-bar, a-a-b-a) (Armenter Bo Chatmon [stage name Bo Carter] recorded it in 1930s) 
How Can It Be? (on their CD Rag Band) (Armenter Bo Chatmon [stage name Bo Carter] recorded it in 1931)
How Come You Do Me Like You Do Do Do? (Gene Austin & Roy Bergere, 1924)
How Do They Do It That Way? (on their CD Garbage Man and on their CD Owl Call Blues) (Composed by Victoria Spivey and R. Floyd, Recorded by Victoria Spivey, 1929)
Ice Man (written and recorded by Memphis Minnie 1936)
I’d Rather Drink Muddy Water (on their CD Rag Band; Eddie Miller, 1936)
If It Don't Fit, Don't Force It (By Barrel House Annie, 1937)
If You Don't, I Know Who Will (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (By Clarence Williams. Recorded by Bessie Smith 1923)
If You Take Me Back (recorded by Kansas Joe McCoy, c. 1934)
I Get The Blues ('I'm So Blue': Bo Carter, 1935)
I Got a Man in the 'Bama Mines (Merline Johnson, 1937)
I Got a Woman (Ray Charles, 1954)
I Got The Cryin' Blues (on their CD Pyramid Strut) (probably Sara Martin and her Jug Band 1925)
I'll See You in the Spring (Memphis Jug Band, 1927)
I'm a Winin' Boy (Jelly Roll Morton introduced this in the 1939)
I'm Blue and Lonesome (Nobody Cares for Me) (Georgia White and Richard M. Jones, 1938)
I’m Goin’ Back Home (recorded by Memphis Minnie with Kansas Joe McCoy, c. 1930)
I'm Gonna Be a Sweet Lovin' Ol' Soul (Sara Martin and her Jug Band, 1925)
I'm Gonna Grab Me A Freight Train
In Harlem's Araby (Fats Waller, Porter Grainger, Jo Trent, 1924)
It’s Nobody’s Fault But Mine (probably Blind Willie Johnson, 1927)
Jackass Blues (Kassel and Stitzel, 1926)
Jackson Stomp (on their CD Rag Band) (Charlie McCoy and Walter Vincson, 1930, for the Mississippi Mud Steppers)
Jailhouse Blues (C.W. Stoneking)
Jazz Battle (Jabbo Smith, 1929)
Jelly Bean Blues (on their CD Six Feet Down) ('Ma' Rainey with Louis Armstrong; also Bessie Smith, 1924)
Jubilee Stomp (Duke Ellington, 1928)
Just a Closer Walk With Thee (first recorded by a jazz band - 1941)
Kansas City Stomps (Jelly Roll Morton, 1923)
Kitchen Man (on their CD Six Feet Down) (Andy Razaf and Alex Bellenda, 1928. Recorded by Bessie Smith)
Lily of the Valley (traditional; made famous by Paul Barbarin in 1951)
Lonesome Drag (on their CD Pyramid Strut) (Erika Lewis composed the lyrics but the tune is Vine Street Drag from 1930 - see below)
Lonesome Road (on their CD Six Feet Down)
Love Me or Leave Me (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (Donaldson and Kahn, 1928)
Lovesick Blues (I Got a Feeling Called the Blues)
Make Me a Pallet on Your Floor (Atlanta Blues)
Maple Leaf Rag (Scott Joplin and Russell, 1899)
Marie (Irving Berlin, 1928)
Mean Blue Spirits (on their CD Pyramid Strut)
Me and My Chauffeur (written by E. Lawler and recorded 1941 by Memphis Minnie)
Memphis Shake (The Dixieland Jug Blowers, 1928. Composer Clifford Hayes?)
Michigander Blues (Jabbo Smith, 1929)
Minor Drag (on their CD Garbage Man)
Mississippi River Blues (aka 'Big Boat': by Big Bill Broonzy, 1934).
Moanin’ The Blues
Mother’s Son-in-Law (on their CD Garbage Man)
Muddy Water (on their CD Garbage Man)
Need a Little Sugar in My Bowl (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (By Clarence Williams, D. Small, Tim Brian. Recorded by Bessie Smith, 1931)
New Dirty Dozens (Recorded by Memphis Minnie 1930; also by others, e.g. Lonnie Johnson 1930)
New Orleans Bump (on their CD Rag Band)
Nobody’s Blues But Mine (on their CD Garbage Man)
Nothin' [aka Dodo Blues] (C. W. Stoneking, 2006)
Oh Papa Blues (recorded by Ma Rainey in 1927)
Oh Red (recorded by Blind Boy Fuller as 'New Oh Red')
Ol' Miss Rag (1915, W C Handy)
One More Thing (a simple 12-bar blues with a vocal and a break in Bars 7 - 8)
Oriental Jazz (a.k.a. Oriental Rag. Composer: Dinwitty. Recorded 1917 by the ODJB)
Oriental Strut (on their CD Owl Call Blues) (Johnny St. Cyr, 1926)
Over in the Gloryland (Acuff and Dean, 1920)
Owl Call Blues (on their CD Owl Call Blues) (hauntingly beautiful Shaye Cohn and Erika Lewis composition)
Papa’s Got Your Bath Water On (on their CD Rag Band) (Recorded by Hattie Hart and The Memphis Jug Band, 1930)
Peace in the Valley (on their CD Six Feet Down)
Perdido Street Blues (Lil Hardin Armstrong, 1926)
Please Come Back To Me
Pyramid Strut (Shaye Cohn composition)
Rock Me (on their CD Tuba Skinny)
Rosa Lee Blues (on their CD Owl Call Blues)
Running Down My Man (Merline Johnson, 1936)
Russian Rag (on their CD Rag Band
Salamanca Blues (on their CD Rag Band) (Shaye Cohn composition)
San (super video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZqKbIeTi5As ) (Michells and McPhail, 1920)
Satan, Your Kingdom Must Come Down
Savoy Blues (Kid Ory and Sid Robin, 1925)
See See Rider (Gertrude 'Ma' Rainey, 1925)
Shake It and Break It (H. Qualli Clark & Frisco Lou Chiha, 1920)
Shine On, Harvest Moon (Jack Norworth & Nora Bayes, 1908)
Short Dress Gal (on their CD Owl Call Blues) (Sam Morgan, 1925)
Sidewalk Blues (Jelly Roll Morton & Walter Melrose, 1926)
Six Feet Down (on their CD Six Feet Down) (Erika Lewis composition)
Skid-Dat-De-Dat (on their CD Pyramid Strut) (Lil Hardin, 1926)
Sleepy Time Blues (Jabbo Smith, 1929. Recorded by Jabbo Smith's Rhythm Aces, 1929)
Slow Driving Moan (on their CD Pyramid Strut) (Closely modelled on the recording by Ma Rainey, 1927)
Slowpoke (on their CD Tuba Skinny)
Sold My Soul, Sold it to the Devil (Merline Johnson, 1937)
Somebody Else is Taking My Place (Russ Morgan, Dick Howard, Bob Elsworth, 1937)
Somebody's Been Loving My Baby (on their CD Owl Call Blues(recorded by Mandy Lee in 1920s)
Some Day I’ll Be Gone Away
Some Day, Sweetheart (John Spikes and Benjamin Spikes, 1919)
Some of These Days (on their CD Garbage Man)
Squeeze Me (on their CD Rag Band) (Fats Waller and Clarence Williams, 1925)
Stavin' Chain (Lil Johnson 12-bar song from 1937)
St. Louis Blues (W.C. Handy, 1914)
Sunset Waltz (Charlie McCoy, 1929, for The Mississippi Mud Steppers)
Sweet Lovin' Ol' Soul (on their CD Pyramid Strut)
Sweet Mama Hurry Home (on their CD Garbage Man)
Sweet Potato Blues
That's It (Mississippi Sheiks, 1930)
The Girls Go Crazy (1916, attr. to Kid Ory)
Them Has Been Blues (by W. E. Skidmore & M. Walker; recorded by Bessie Smith in 1925)
Throw Your Black Hand Down
Tiger Rag (La Rocca and De Costa, 1917)
Tight Like This (on their CD Tuba Skinny)
Tin Roof Blues (Melrose, 1922)
Tishomingo Blues (Spencer Williams, 1917)
Tom Cat Blues (Jelly Roll Morton, 1924)
Tight Blues (on their CD Owl Call Blues)
Travellin' Blues (on their CD Owl Call Blues) (recorded by Jimmie Rodgers in 1931)
Treasures Untold (waltz) (on their CD Rag Band)
Tricks Ain’t Walkin’ No More (on their CD Rag Band(Memphis Minnie song from 1931)
True Love (12-bar blues)
Turtle Blues (on their CD Six Feet Down)
Untrue Blues (on their CD Owl Call Blues)
Up a Lazy River (Hoagy Carmichael and Sidney Arodin, 1931)
Variety Stomp (Joe Trent, Ray Henderson, Bud Green, 1927)
Vine Street Blues (on their CD Six Feet Down) (possibly Benny Moten and his Kansas City Orchestra, 1924)
Vine Street Drag (Tennessee Chocolate Drops, 1930. Possible composer: J. Brown)
Viper Mad (Sidney Bechet and Rousseau Simmons, 1924)
Wabash Blues (1921 composition by Dave Ringle and Fred Meinken)
Weary Blues (for a terrific video performance, CLICK ON HERE   )
Weary-Eyed Blues (on their CD Garbage Man)
Wee Midnight Hours (Blind Willie McTell, 1950)
Weeping  Willow Blues (on their CD Six Feet Down)
What If We Do? (Recorded by Katherine Henderson with Clarence Williams 1930)
What’s the Matter With the Mill? (Memphis Minnie and Joe McCoy, 1930)
When My Dreamboat Comes Home (Cliff Friend and Dave Franklin, 1936)
When You and I Were Young, Maggie (Their oldest tune? Composed in 1866 by J A Butterfield and G W Johnson) 
Wild Man Blues (The Morton and Armstrong classic from 1927)
Willie the Weeper (on their CD Owl Call Blues) (Melrose, Bloom and Rymal, 1920)
Winin' Boy Blues  (J.R. Morton, 1939)
Won’t You Be Kind to Me? (Hattie Hart and the Memphis Jug Band, 1928)
Yearning (The 1925 song by Joe Burke and Benny Davis)
Yellow Dog Blues  (W. C. Handy, 1914)
Yes Sir That’s My Baby (Gus Kahn, Walter Donaldson, 1925)
You Can Have My Husband (on their CD Six Feet Down) (Dorothy Labostrie, 1960)
You Let Me Down (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (Harry Warren and Al Dubin, 1935)
You’ve Been a Good Ol’ Waggon (on their CD Tuba Skinny) (Smith and Balcom. Recorded by Bessie Smith, 1925)