Unfortunately, we certainly can't lump 16-bar tunes together as one type, however. Just like 32-bar tunes, they come in a variety of structures.
My own favourite is the type that allows for 'breaks' in bars 9 to 12. This is how the chord progression often goes:
This structural pattern was very common in the 1920s. Four more examples from that era are Oh Miss Hannah (1924) and Black Eye Blues (1928) and Red Hot Mama (1924), It's Right Here For You (1925) and I'm Watchin' The Clock (1928).
For a very good example of what I am trying to describe, watch this YouTube video of If It Don't Fit, Don't Force It. This has it all: clear structure, tag (on most choruses), and fine uses of the all the breaks in bars 9 - 12 (note the lovely one taken by the tuba at the end!):
It's also possible to put a break in Bars 7 and 8, rather than 9 to 12. You need three lots of the Sweet Sue Progression (dominant to tonic) ending with a break on the tonic in those two bars - 7 and 8:
But now let us look at some of the many other 16 bar progressions. Here's a very common and simple one:
Even more simple (only two chords needed):
I | I | I | V7
(Example: Rum and Coca Cola)
Then there are some that do something striking with the 12th bar (for example, an unexpected diminished chord):
V7 | V7 | V7 | I
VI7 | VI7 | IV7 | IVo
Or the 12th bar surprise can be a III7th:
I | V7 | I | I
(Example: Precious Lord Lead Me On)
But the permutations are endless. Here are a few more.
(Example: That's a Plenty - final theme)
I | V7 | I | V7
I | V7 | II7 | V7
IV:IVo | I:VI7 | II7:V7 | I